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Item #: ANM11045
MEDICAL ANIMATION TRANSCRIPT: Acid-base balance is the precise maintenance of the hydrogen ion concentration in blood and tissue fluids so the body will function properly. This concentration of hydrogen in body fluids is called PH, and the acidity or alkalinity of the fluid is expressed as a pH value. Normal blood pH ranges from 7.35 to 7.45. Metabolic processes constantly release acids, which freely release hydrogen ions, resulting in increased acidity and lower blood pH. In response, the body can use chemical buffers such as bases to neutralize the acids and physiological buffers to facilitate their excretion through the kidney. Respiratory alkalosis occurs when hyperventilation causes too much carbon dioxide to be exhaled. If respiration removes carbon dioxide faster than the body produces it, a carbon dioxide deficit ensues. As a result, less carbon dioxide is available to combine with water to produce carbonic acid. Less carbonic acid dissociates into fewer free hydrogen ions. A deficit of hydrogen ions raises pH and causes alkalosis. Metabolic alkalosis occurs when hydrogen ion concentration decreases or bicarbonate increases. Conditions causing metabolic alkalosis include depletion of gastric acid through chronic vomiting or nasogastric suction and introduction of excess bicarbonate such as intravenous bicarbonate solutions or antacids. Primary treatment for respiratory alkalosis is reduction of respiratory rate to allow carbon dioxide to return to normal levels. Treatment for metabolic alkalosis from excess bicarbonate intake includes decreasing bicarbonate administration while allowing the kidneys to excrete the excess. For metabolic alkalosis resulting from vomiting, administration of antiemetic drugs will reduce nausea and vomiting. ♪ [music] ♪
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