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Arteriosclerosis - Medical Animation

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Arteriosclerosis - Medical Animation
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Arteriosclerosis - Medical Animation
MEDICAL ANIMATION TRANSCRIPT: La Arteriosclerosis es una enfermedad potencialmente mortal, que puede comenzar a desarrollarse durante la niez. Esta enfermedad es un proceso en el que los depsitos de material graso, llamado placa, se acumulan en las paredes de las arterias reduciendo o bloqueando por completo el flujo sanguneo. Si bien las causas exactas de la arteriosclerosis no estn claras, muchos cientficos afirman que esta empieza con el dao a la pared interna de una arteria llamada endotelio. Las sustancias transportadas a travs de la sangre como el colesterol, las grasas y los productos de desechos celular se acumulan en el rea daada de la pared arterial. Las reacciones qumicas que se presentan dentro de la acumulacin de material hacen que las molculas de colesterol se oxiden. Esto da lugar a una respuesta inflamatoria en la que las clulas endoteliales del sitio daado liberan sustancias qumicas que indican una llamada de auxilio. Como respuesta, los monocitos del torrente sanguneo se dirigen hacia el sitio daado. El estmulo del colesterol oxidado convierte a los monocitos en macrfagos. Los macrfagos comen y digieren las molculas de colesterol. Como resultado de este proceso, los macrfagos se convierten en clulas espumosas las cuales se acumulan para formar la placa. En la medida que la placa aumenta de tamao la pared arterial se hace ms densa y se endurece. Al mismo tiempo, las clulas musculares lisas en la pared arterial empiezan a multiplicarse. La mayora de clulas musculares lisas se mueven hacia la superficie de la placa. Estas clulas contribuyen a la formacin de una tapa fibrosa firme que cubre la placa. Finalmente, el pasillo a travs de la arteria se estrecha lo suficiente como para reducir el flujo sanguneo y la cantidad de oxgeno recibida por los rganos que abastece. Con el tiempo, la tapa puede erosionar y abrirse, liberando placa en el torrente sanguneo. La placa puede fluir y contribuir a la formacin de un cogulo de sangre que puede detener el flujo sanguneo. Como resultado, un suministro limitado de sangre est disponible en las reas alrededor de la arteria parcialmente bloqueada, degradando y potencialmente matando el tejido vecino.

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